Broncholithiasis can occur under a variety of circumstances.


Causes of broncholithiasis include:

(1) erosion of a calcified lymph node into an adjacent bronchus

(2) erosion of calcified bronchial cartilage into bronchial lumen

(3) calcification of inspissated mucus

(4) calcification of aspirated foreign material

(5) aspiration of a bone

(6) migration of calcified material from a distant site (via fistula or other route)


Differential diagnosis:

(1) calcified endobronchial tumor

(2) fungus ball



• A calcified fungus ball could become a broncholith.


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