A staphyloma is a herniation of uveal tissue through a thinned and weakened area of the sclera. A number of conditions can affect the sclera prior to the appearance of the staphyloma.


Conditions that result in the formation of a staphyloma:

(1) autoimmune disease (Wegener’s disease, rheumatoid arthritis, Felty’s syndrome)

(2) infection (tuberculosis, syphilis, fungal infection, plague, Herpes zoster, other)

(3) ocular trauma

(4) surgery (deep scleral resection, scleral buckle removal, pterygeium excision)

(5) radiation

(6) drug or toxin exposure, especially drug injection

(7) porphyria

(8) endocrine disorder (hyperparathyroidism)

(9) inflammatory disorders of the eye (uveitis, scleritis, endarteritis, epidermolysis bullosa, other)

(10) ophthalmic disorders (glaucoma, buphthalmos, corneoscleral ectasia, myopia)

(12) hereditary disorders (MRCS, Meckel syndrome, oculodental syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome)


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