The clinical findings seen in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (bradykinesia, tremor, rigidity with postural instability, etc) may be shared by a number of other conditions.

Possible causes of a Parkinsonian syndrome:

(1) idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD)

(2) cerebrovascular disease (with infarcts of basal ganglia and substantia nigra)

(3) drugs (see above)

(4) diffuse Lewy body disease (DLBD)

(5) multiple system atrophy (MSA, striatonigral degeneration, Shy-Drager syndrome)

(6) progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP)

(7) Alzheimer's disease with extrapyramidal features

(8) corticobasal ganglionic degeneration

(9) Guam parkinsonism-dementia-amyotrophic lateral sclerosis complex

(10) normal pressure hydrocephalus

(11) encephalitis

(12) postencephalitic parkinsonism (encephalitis lethargica)

(13) Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

(14) head trauma

(15) brain tumors

(16) carbon monoxide poisoning

(17) manganese poisoning

(18) cobalt poisoning

(19) cyanide poisoning

(20) MPTP poisoning (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine)

(21) Wilson's disease

(22) Huntington's chorea

(23) Hallervorden-Spatz disease

(24) neuroacanthosis

(25) frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17)

(26) hypoparathyroidism with calcification of the basal ganglia

(27) hepatocerebral degeneration

(28) methanol poisoning

(29) neurocysticercosis (see 17.29.16)

To read more or access our algorithms and calculators, please log in or register.