A patient's tongue may show a midline cleft or be split (bifid) for a number of reasons.


Hereditary causes of a bifid tongue:

(1) Oral-Facial-Digital Syndrome Type I

(2) Oral-Facial-Digital Syndrome Type II (Mohr Syndrome)

(3) Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome

(4) Oculoauriculovertebral syndrome, which may be related to maternal diabetes


Hereditary causes of a cleft tongue:

(1) Trisomy 13

(2) Robinow Syndrome

(3) Oromandibular-Limb Hypogenesis Spectrum

(4) Opitz-Frias Syndrome (G or BBB Syndrome)

(5) Goltz Syndrome (focal dermal hypoplasia)


Acquired causes:

(1) trauma

(2) surgery

(3) body modification


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