Cardiac tamponade may present with a number of clinical findings, the progression of which depends on how rapidly the pericardial fluid accumulates.
(1) chest pain or a feeling of heaviness
(4) dyspnea, especially on exertion
Physical findings - classic "triad":
(2) tachycardia (pulse > 90 beats per minute, which may be absent in uremia or hypothyroidism)
(3) muffled heart sounds
(4) pulsus paradoxicus
(5) distended jugular and retinal veins
(6) pericardial rub
If the intrapericardial pressure becomes high enough to seriously impair cardiac output, then signs of low output (cardiogenic) shock develop with:
(1) cold and clammy skin
(3) altered mental status
(4) peripheral cyanosis
(5) severe hypotension
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Purpose: To identify signs and symptoms of cardiac tamponade in a patient.
Objective: imaging studies, criteria for diagnosis, severity, prognosis, stage, complications