The stroke volume of blood pumped into the proximal aorta with each cardiac contraction is equal to the product of the mean systolic velocity and the cross-sectional aortic area. The cardiac output is the heart rate times the stroke volume.

stroke volume =

= (cross sectional area of vessel) * (flow velocity integral)



• flow velocity integral = ((peak velocity in cm/s) *  (ejection time in seconds)) / 2

• the flow velocity integral in adults usually ranges between 5-35 cm


cardiac output in liters per minute =

= (stroke volume in mL per systole) * (heart rate in beats per minute) / 1000

To read more or access our algorithms and calculators, please log in or register.