Complete heart block may rarely occur following cardiac catheterization in a pediatric patient with congenital heart disease.


Risk factors for CIHB (Mah et al):

(1) age < 1 year

(2) case duration >= 2 hours


Most patients have complex congenital heart disease (which is associated with both of the above risk factors).


Most patients recover normal sinus within 2 weeks but some children may require a pacemaker. Many patients who have a pacemaker will recover atrioventricular conduction over time.


To read more or access our algorithms and calculators, please log in or register.