In addition to myelodysplasia, visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) may mimic myelofibrosis.


(1) any combination of cytopenia

(2) splenomegaly

(3) fever

(4) diffuse thickening of reticulin fibers in the bone marrow


When to consider the diagnosis:

(1) patient living in or having extensive travel to a country where Leishmaniasis is endemic

(2) granulomas in the bone marrow

(3) identification of Leishman Donovan bodies in bone marrow smears

(4) pediatric patient

(5) gelatinous transformation of the bone marrow

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