Black hairy tongue refers to a dark color to a tongue with an irregular dorsal surface.
Synonym: lingua villosa nigra
(1) poor oral hygiene
(2) heavy smoking
(3) antibiotic use (which alters normal oral flora)
(4) chronic use of Pepto-Bismol (bismuth turns other things black)
(1) hyperplasia of the filiform papillae, resulting in a "hairy" appearance to the dorsal tongue
(2) proliferation of bacteria and accumulation of pigmented metabolites (porphyrins, other) among the papillae, imparting a dark (black, brown) appearance
(3) variable presence of halitosis
(4) variable presence of abnormal taste
(1) improving oral hygiene, which includes brushing and cleaning the tongue.
(2) stopping use of tobacco products
(3) discontinuation of antibiotic and Pepto-Bismol therapy
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