Atrial fibrillation may be associated with one or more risk factors.


Risk factors for atrial fibrillation

(1) increasing age

(2) cardiac disease (myocardial, valvular or conductive)

(3) extra-cardiac conditions


Myocardial or valvular disease:

(1) ischemic heart disease

(2) hypertensive heart disease

(3) alcoholic cardiomyopathy

(4) hypertrophic or dilated cardiomyopathy

(5) rheumatic heart disease

(6) heart failure of any cause

(7) sick sinus syndrome or other disorder of the sinus node


Extra-cardiac disease:

(1) thyrotoxicosis

(2) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

(3) postoperative (cardiac or noncardiac)

(4) acute alcohol intoxication


"Lone" atrial fibrillation describes idiopathic atrial fibrillation, where no risk factor is identified.


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