A fallacy may arise when an appeal is made to some outside factor tangential to the topic under discussion. This is done in an attempt to divert the discussion from a rational analysis of the underlying facts (or the merits of a product).


Types of appeals that may be made:

(1) to an authority

(2) to belief

(3) to common practice

(4) to an emotion (pity, other)

(5) to fear

(6) to flattery

(7) to go along with the crowd (get on the bandwagon)

(8) to novelty

(9) to patriotism

(10) to prestige

(11) to profit or gain (greed)

(12) to popularity

(13) to ridicule

(14) to spite

(15) to culture or tradition


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