A patient who has been successfully vaccinated should show a rise in protective antibodies.



(1) concentration of protective antibody prior to vaccination

(2) concentration of protective antibody after vaccination


antibody response =

= (antibody concentration after) / (antibody concentration before)



• A “positive response” may vary but Kapetanovic et al used a ratio >= 2 as a positive response.

• A ratio < 1 might be a reason to double check the results (accuracy of the method for measuring the antibody concentration, specimen problem, etc).


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