The presence of amnion Nodosa is an important placental finding that is associated with high perinatal mortality, congenital anomalies and lung immaturity in the neonate.

Gross appearance:

(1) granules on the fetal surface less than 5 mm in diameter, best seen under oblique light

(2) present in the amnion (move with the amnion)

(3) absent from the umbilical cord

(4) can be scraped off the amnion


Histologic features of the granules:

(1) fetal squamous cells

(2) sebum, keratin and hair

(3) proteinaceous debris



(1) congenital anomalies (renal agenesis, sirenomelia, other)

(2) pulmonary immaturity

(3) oligohydramnios (especially in the first trimester)

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