These recommendations for screening asymptomatic persons for diabetes mellitus are part of the new American Diabetes Association guidelines proposed in 1997.
Testing Criteria 1: All individuals >= 45 years of age.
If normal, repeat testing should be done every 3 years thereafter.
Testing Criteria 2: If the patient is high risk (one or more of the following high risk factors are present), then testing for diabetes should be started before age 45 and conducted more frequently than every 3 years, depending on clinical status.
Factors associated with high risk for diabetes:
(1) obese (>= 120% of desirable body weight, or BMI >= 27 kg per square meter)
(2) first degree relative (parent or sibling) with diabetes mellitus
(3) member of high risk ethnic population (Afro-American, Hispanic, Native American)
(4) woman with baby > 9 pounds at delivery, and/or diagnosed with gestational diabetes
(5) hypertensive (>= 140/90)
(6) HDL cholesterol <= 35 mg/dL and/or triglyceride level >= 250 mg/dL
(7) had impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose on previous testing
• Impaired fasting glucose is a plasma glucose >= 110 mg/dL AND < 126 mg/dL after a minimum 8 hour fast.
• Impaired glucose tolerance is a 2 hour postload glucose >= 140 mg/dL and < 200 mg/dL, with the load as 75 grams anhydrous glucose.
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Specialty: Endocrinology, Clinical Laboratory