Chewing gum may be associated with a number of adverse effects that usually occur in people who do so excessively.

Dental changes:

(1) increased risk of caries from sugar

(2) loosening of fillings, bridges, orthodontics, or other dental repairs



(1) dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint

(2) hypertrophy of masticatory muscles

(3) bite injuries to tongue or cheek


Metabolic changes:

(1) hypokalemia and hypertension with excessive licorice-flavored gum (due to glycyrrhiza)

(2) increased mercury levels due to release from amalgam


Gastrointestinal changes:

(1) gastrointestinal bezoars if the gum is repetitively swallowed

(2) diarrhea or excessive flatulence from swallowed sorbitol

(3) air swallowing



(1) perioral dermatitis with bubble gum

(2) allergic reactions to additives (menthol, chlorophylla, other)

(3) mouth ulcers from cinnamon flavoring

(4) wad being stuck into the nose or ear (usually by a small child)

(5) aspiration

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