Ramadanov et al reported risk factors for medication errors that can occur during prehospital care of a patient. The authors are from University Hospital Jena, Friedrich Schiller University, and Marienhaus Hospital Hetzelstift.

Situation: prehospital care provided by an emergency physician


Risk factors for medication errors:

(1) incorrect diagnosis

(2) inexperience of the physician

(3) patient age >= 75 years

(4) nighttime deployment (3 to 6 AM)


Types of errors that may arise:

(1) misuse (inappropriate administration with incorrect dose, incorrect route, etc)

(2) underuse (failure to provide an appropriate drug)

(3) overuse (unnecessary medication)


Additional factors not included in study:

(1) lack of drug availability

(2) lack of patient information (on allergies, renal function, concurrent medications)

(3) comorbidities

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