# Sitemap

## Decisional Analysis

- Incidence Rate
- Prevalence
- Sensitivity
- Specificity
- False-Negative Rate
- False-Positive Rate
- Positive Predictive Value (PPV)
- Negative Predictive Value (NPV)
- Overall Accuracy, or Diagnostic Efficiency
- Deriving Missing Performance Measures When Only Some Are Known
- Youden's Index
- Discriminant Power for a Test (Test Effectiveness Statistic)
- Test Performance in a Population as Prevalence Changes
- Determining the Original Data from Test Performance Measures
- Algorithm of Grimes and Schulz for Distinguishing Rates, Proportions and Ratios
- Interpreting a Test Value Based on a Clinical Study Using Ranked Results
- Percent of Patients Misclassified by a Test in a Population with a Given Disease Prevalence
- Entropy of a Result Based on the Probability for a Disease
- Formulae of Buck and Gart for Apparent Sensitivity and Specificity of a Test Relative to a Reference Method
- Identifying Possible Causes for a Difference Between Reported and Observed Sensitivity and Specificity for a Diagnostic Test
- Spectrum Effect (Spectrum Bias)
- Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) for a Statistical Model
- Evaluation of a Test Based on its Sensitivity, Specificity and Youden Index
- Bayes's Theorem
- Odds and Likelihood Ratios
- Odds and Likelihood Ratios for Sequential Testing
- Determining the Sensitivity and Specificity for a Test Required to Provide a Post-Test Probability for a Specified Pre-Test Probability
- Determining the Sensitivity and Specificity for a Test Based on its Positive and Negative Likelihood Ratios
- Weight of Evidence
- Number of Tests with a Given Sensitivity and Specificity Required to Achieve a Given Post-Test Probability
- Final Post-Test Probability After Performing a Series of Diagnostic Tests
- Risk Sensitivity and Risk Specificity
- Arithmetic Mean of Values in a Normal Distribution
- Standard Deviation (SD) of Values in a Normal Distribution
- Coefficient of Variation (CV)
- Logistic Distribution
- Coefficient of Stability (CS) for the Mean
- Determining the Equation for Converting a Score to a Probability with a Logistic Distribution
- Determining a Test's Mean and Standard Deviation from the Normal Reference Range
- Determining the Number of Standard Deviations Required to Include a Given Percent of a Population That Follows a Normal Distribution
- Determining the Number of People in a Population with a Normal Distribution with Values Higher or Lower Than a Given Result
- Z-score
- Ceiling or Floor Effect
- Geometric Mean
- Shapes of Feinstein for Different Data Distributions
- Median and Mode in a Distribution
- Handling Random Measurement Error in an Outcome Variable
- Handling Random Measurement Error in an Exposure Variable (Regression Dilution Bias)
- Handling Outlier Data
- Overfitting in a Regression Model
- Standard Deviation Interval (SDI)
- Coefficient of Variation Interval (CVI)
- Total Allowable Error
- Using the Binomial Distribution to Evaluate a Production Run Based on Random Sampling and the Percent Allowable Defects
- Outcome Comparison of Two Groups
- Comparison of Two Observers
- Test Comparison Using Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) Plots
- Determining the Maximum Youden Index for a ROC Plot
- The Area Under the Curve for a ROC Plot Symmetrical About the Line for Sensitivity Equal to Specificity
- Distance of a Point on the ROC Curve from the Ideal
- Correlating the Area Under the ROC Curve (AROC) with the Performance of a Test
- The Null Hypothesis, with Type I and Type II Errors
- Westgard Control Rules
- Using a Series of Control Rules in the Multirule Shewhart Procedure
- Criteria for Assessing the Methodologic Quality of Clinical Studies Used by Heyland et al
- Method of Evans and Pollock to Evaluate Controlled Clinical Trials
- Methodologic Quality Score Used by Hatala et al
- Methodologic Quality Score Used by Andrews to Evaluate Clinical Trials of Contrast Media in Radiology
- The Score of Jadad et al for Evaluating the Quality of Randomized Clinical Trials
- Research Quality Scoring Method of Brown
- Quality Score of Halpern and Preston for Clinical Trials, Adapted from the Score of Detsky et al
- Quality Score of Krzyzanowski et al for Abstracts Reporting Randomised Clinical Trials at the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Meetings
- Minimal Data Set for Registration of a Clinical Trial
- Classification of Van Spall et al for Appropriateness of Exclusion Criteria in a Clinical Trial
- Evidence Scoring (ES) System of Yamazaki for Comparing the Strength of Evidence for a Drug in Large Scale Clinical Trials
- PEDro (Physiotherapy Evidence Database) Scale for Evaluating the Evidence for Physiotherapy Practice
- Method of Lehmann et al for Categorizing the Strengths and Weaknesses of a Clinical Trial
- Avoiding Pitfalls in Subgroup Analysis
- Will Rogers Phenomenon in Outcome Analysis
- Criteria of Heddle and Cook for Deciding If a Composite Outcome Is Being Used Appropriately in a Clinical Trial
- Placebo versus Active Controls in a Clinical Trial
- Interpreting Results of a Non-Inferiority Clinical Trial
- Levels of Evidence of Dugoua et al for Therapeutic Efficacy
- Definitions of Westra et al for Minimal Risk in a Pediatric Clinical Trial
- Ascertainment Error (Over-Ascertainment, Under-Ascertainment)
- Number Needed to Treat (NNT), Relative Risk Reduction (RRR, Relative Risk Difference) and Absolute Risk Reduction (ARR, Absolute Risk Difference)
- Net Intervention Effect
- Rule of Thumb by Rumke for the Upper Confidence Limits for an Adverse Event Occurring If None Are Seen in a Study Population
- Number Needed to Harm (NNH)
- Number Needed to Treat With Unmitigated Success
- Number Needed to Treat With Unmitigated Failure
- Likelihood of Being Helped versus Harmed (LHH)
- Number Needed to Treat Using the Hazard Ratio
- Channeling Bias
- Simpson's Paradox
- Response Shift
- Immortal Time Bias (Survivor Treatment Selection Bias)
- Attained Effect (AE) and Maximum Attained Effect (MAE)
- Cascade Effect
- The Corrected Risk Ratio and Estimating Relative Risk
- The Population Attributable Risk (PAR) Percent
- Population Impact Number From Eliminating a Risk Factor (PIN-ER)
- Disease Impact Number (DIN) of Heller and Dobson
- Relative Risk for Improvement
- Estimating the Number of Events Required to Achieve a Certain Risk Ratio Based on a Relative Risk Per Event
- Confidence Interval for a Single Mean
- Confidence Interval for the Difference Between Two Means
- Confidence Interval for a Single Proportion
- Confidence Interval When the Proportion in N Observations is 0 or 1
- Confidence Interval for the Difference Between Two Proportions Based on the Odds Ratio
- Confidence Interval for the Difference Between Two Proportions Using the Normal Approximation
- Odds and Percentages
- Benefit-to-Risk Ratio and Treatment Threshold for Using a Treatment Strategy
- Testing and Test Treatment Thresholds
- Determining If Surgery Is Indicated for a Condition Based on the Rate of Symptom Progression and Life Expectancy
- Criteria of Schneiderman et al to Identify Medical Futility
- Greenwich Grading System (GGS) for the Value of an Investigation in Patient Care
- Severity and Likelihood Matrix
- Feasibility Index of Lanzarini et al
- Assessing Therapeutic Efficacy in Clinical Practice Using the LUNDEX
- ACOG Ethics Committee Definitions of Medical Futility
- Healthy Life-Years (HeaLY) Estimation
- Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY)
- Cost Savings of an Immunization Program
- Selection of Medical Management Strategy Based on Cost-Effectiveness
- Marginal Cost-Effectiveness Ratio
- Cost-Benefit Analysis with Net Present Value or Benefit
- Criteria of Petitti for Selecting a Treatment Based on Cost-Effectiveness
- SAFE (Safe, Appropriate, Fiscally Neutral, Effective) Principles When Selecting a Therapy
- Estimating Changes in Life Expectancy Using the DEALE
- Estimating the Average Annual Mortality Rate Using the DEALE and Survival Curves
- Calculating the Kappa Coefficient for 2 Observations by 2 Observers
- Calculating the Kappa Coefficient for 3 Observations by 2 Observers
- Calculation of the Alpha Coefficient for a Battery of Tests
- The Crossroads 99 Criteria for Screening Assessment
- The Possible Types of Bias in Disease Screening
- Criteria for a Useful Screening Test
- Criteria of Cadman et al for Assessing the Effectiveness of a Community Screening Program
- Criteria of Welch and Black for Evaluating a Report Describing the Randomized Trial of a Screening Test
- Surveillance Bias (Detection Bias)
- Recall Bias (Responder Bias)
- Failing to Disclose or Lying About Risk Factors
- Quality Indicators for Health Information on the Internet
- Grading Instrument for Evaluation of Peer Review of Manuscripts
- Criteria of Oxman et al for Scientific Quality of a Research Overview Article
- Scoring Method of Callaham et al for Quality of Peer Review
- Patterns of von Elm et al for Describing Duplicate Publication in the Medical Literature
- Guidelines of Smith et al for Scoring the Quality of a Poster Presentation at a Scientific Meeting
- Warning Signs of Bruhn for Published Claims Made About a Food, Drug or Therapy
- Criteria of Slawson and Shaughnessy for Clinically Useful Information
- Evaluating the Usefulness of Information from an Expert
- Impact Factor (IF) for a Journal
- When to Suspect a Hoax
- Criteria of Radulescu et al for Evaluating a Prevalence Survey
- Factors Affecting the Quality of a Query on the Internet
- Daubert Guidelines for Determining If Evidence is Scientifically Based
- Classification for the Investigation of a Waterborne Disease Outbreak
- Criteria of the Editors from the Journal Obstetrics & Gynecology for Grading the Quality of a Journal Reviewer
- Review Assessment Questionnaire of Landkroon et al
- Editor Assessment Questionnaire
- Criteria of Wasson et al for Evaluating the Report of a Clinical Prediction Rule
- Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) Criteria for Retracting a Publication
- Criteria of Annesley for a Well-Written Abstract
- Recommendations of Best for Evaluating a Statistic Reported in the Literature
- Overmatching in a Case Control Study
- Criteria of the ICMJE for an Author of a Journal Article
- Data Fabrication and Falsification
- Method of Shekelle et al for Determining if a Clinical Practice Guideline Should be Updated
- NICE Recommendations for Parameters to Consider When Developing a Clinical Guideline
- The Lorenz Curve and Gini Coefficient
- The Robin Hood Index (Pietra Ratio) and Allocation of Health Care Providers
- Calculation of the Brier Score for a Prognostic Index
- The Reliable Change Index (RCI)
- Significant Change in a Laboratory Test Result
- Confidence Level Descriptions in Diagnosis
- Explicit Tests for Verifying a Diagnosis
- Attribution Scheme of Sanders et al for the Likelihood of a Diagnosis
- Using a Therapeutic Trial (Test of Treatment) to Make a Diagnosis
- Great Imitators (Masqueraders) in Diagnosis
- Susser's Rules of Inference in Epidemiology
- Sources of Bias in Meta-Analysis of Controlled Clinical Trials
- Causes of Naylor for Differences Between Apparently Similar Clinical Trials
- I-squared of Higgins et al for Measuring Inconsistency in a Meta-Analysis
- Algorithm of Grimes and Schulz for Classifying a Clinical Research Study
- Levels of Evidence and Grades of Recommendations from Cook, Sackett et al.
- Grading the Evidence for a Clinical Guideline Using the GRADE Approach
- Levels of Evidence of Sackett and Goldsmith for a Clinical Sign or Symptom
- The STOX (Systematic Reviews, Trials, Observational Studies, Expressions of Opinion) Classification of Evidence
- P Score (Prognostic Value) of a Prognostic Factor
- Strength of a Recommendation in a Clinical Guideline from the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA)
- Hawthorne Effect
- The Perceived Involvement in Care Scale (PICS)
- Perceived Personal Control (PPC) Questionnaire of Berkenstadt
- Algorithm for Expert Classification of Chest Radiographs in Pneumoconiosis
- Classification of Murphy et al for Agreement Between Pathologists
- Index of Weighted Percentage Agreement Between 2 Observers Using 4 Ordinal Categories
- Use of the McNemar Index to Identify Biased Disagreements in Binary Classifications By Two Observers
- Method of Schulz and Grimes for Maximizing Patient Follow-Up in a Clinical Trial
- Acceptable Rate of Loss to Follow-Up in a Clinical Trial
- Use of Cohen's Effect Size Index for Two Samples with Independent Means to Determine the Number in Each Sample to Provide Optimum Power
- Design Effect (DE) for Clustered Samples
- Numeracy Score to Determine a Patient's Understanding of Chance Occurrences
- The Paling Perspective Scale for Presenting Risk
- Comparing the Risk of a Medical Event to Life Events
- Acceptance vs Outrage for a Perceived Risk
- Different Kinds of Attitudes People Have Towards Risk and Its Handling
- The Chances of Getting 2 Specified Numbers on 2 Rolls of 2 Dice
- Why a Person Will Stay in a Location with a Significant Environmental Risk
- Criteria of Hill for Causal Association of an Exposure
- Hazards of Indiscriminate Blame for an Intervention
- Sampling Error
- Data Drift
- Sidak Correction for the Statistical Significance of Multiple Tests
- Cumulative Probability Value When Combining a Group of Independent Tests
- Fitting Data to a Hypothesis (Procrustean Data Torturing)
- Fitting a Hypothesis to Data (Opportunistic Data Torturing)
- Screening for Evidence of Data Torturing
- Number of Possible Combinations for a Subset of Findings
- Factors of Boynton for Increasing the Response Rate to Questionnaires
- Types of Sampling for a Questionnaire
- Checklist of Boynton and Greenhalgh for Prerelease Evaluation of a Questionnaire
- Calculating the Response Rate for a Questionnaire
- Flynn Effect and Results of Intelligence Quotient (IQ) Tests Over Time
- Calculating the Expected Value for a Probabilistically Distributed Quantity
- Comparing the Outcomes of Two Strategies for Probabilistic Dominance
- Decision Analysis for an Insurance Company Covering a Malpractice Claim
- Features of Dysfunctional Thinking
- Characteristics of a Negative or Destructive Cult
- Availability Bias (Availability Heuristic)
- Selective Reporting Bias (Publication Bias, Outcome Reporting Bias)
- Ego Bias and Reverse Ego Bias
- Outcome Bias
- Early Adopter Bias
- Biases That Can Affect a Consensus Conference
- Interactions of Diagnosis and Reporting Biases
- Interviewer Bias
- Victory Disease
- Cognitive Dissonance
- Reasons for a Rush to Judgment
- Ambiguity and Disambiguation
- Ostrich Syndrome
- Types of Binary Choices: Hobson’s, Morton’s Fork and Dilemmas
- Asymmetry Index (AI) Between Measurements of Objects on the Left and Right Sides
- Calculating the NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) for a Task
- Magical Number 7 Plus or Minus 2 for Working Memory (Miller's Law)
- Synergy Index Multiplicative (SIM) of Khoury and Flanders in Gene-Environment Interaction Case Control Studies
- Synergy Index Additive Model of Khoury and Flanders in Gene-Environment Interaction Case Control Studies
- Clinical Algorithm Structural Analysis (CASA) Complexity Score
- Conditions Which Can Result in Error When Using a Clinical Prediction Rule
- Triggers for Automated Execution of a Clinical Algorithm
- Creating a Score from Coefficients Derived from Logistic Regression Analysis
- Various Approaches to Handling a Clinical Prediction Model If Data Is Missing
- 10 Reasons Why a Clinician May Not Use an Algorithm
- Questions of Farooq et al for Evaluating the Performance of a Prognostic Score
- Classification of Feinstein for Scales
- Time to Achieve a Change in Value for a First Order Process
- Rates for Describing Combat Casualties (Killed in Action, etc.)
- Disease Rate and Transition Probability
- Factors Affecting the Reliability of Self-Reported Information
- Simple and Compound Interest
- Annual Inflation Rate
- Types of Failures in Medical Software Testing
- FDA Level of Concern for Medical Software Contained in a Medical Device
- Requirements When Submitting Medical Software for FDA Approval
- Requirements for an Electronic Signature
- Requirements for Adequate Backup of a Computer
- Problems with Barcode Labels
- Desirable Characteristics of Smith for a Clinical Decision Support System
- Predictors of Sittig et al for a Clinician's Acceptance of an Alert from a Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS)
- Post Hoc Fallacy
- Types of Ad Hominem Fallacies
- Decision Influenced by a Speaker's Behavior
- Appeal-Based Arguments
- Risk Telescoping
- False Dilemma
- Dosing to Toxicity
- Reasons People Believe a Pathologic Liar
- Ecological Fallacy
- Urban Legend (Urban Myth)
- Association Fallacy
- Slippery Slope
- Gambler's Fallacy (Monte Carlo Fallacy)
- Confusing Cause and Effect
- Anchoring Bias (Focusing Bias)
- Cherry Picking Fallacy (Fallacy of Incomplete Evidence)
- Hazards Associated with a False Alarm
- Inattentional Blindness
- Warning Overload
- Prioritizing Warnings
- Habituation and Adaptation to an Alarm or Warning
- Requirements for an Auditory Warning to Be Effective
- Requirements for an Visual Warning to Be Effective
- Barriers That May Limit the Effectiveness of an Alarm or Warning
- Reasons Why a Person May Not Heed a Warning
- Classifying a Failure of a Warning System
- Ways That a Vandal May Interfere with a Visible Warning Sign
- Shape and Color Standards for Common Workplace Safety Signs
- Factors of Smith-Jackson to Consider When Transferring an Information Resource to a Different Culture
- Factors of Bonell et al Affecting the Delivery of an Intervention To Another Site
- Recommended Steps for Translating a Questionnaire into Another Language
- Bait and Switch
- Risk Factors for Being Taken by a Scam or Confidence Trick
- Ponzi Scheme
- Risk Factors for Being Taken by a Person Displaying Feigned Anger
- Interquartile Range (IQR)
- Dixon’s Q Test to Detect an Outlier in a Data Set
- Calculating the Confidence Interval (CI) for a Difference Using the Reported P value
- Calculating the Confidence Interval (CI) for a Ratio Using the Reported P value
- Elements of Decision Regret
- Observational Intensity Bias
- Gold Rush Fever
- Elements of a Fad
- Demoralization
- Target Fixation (Moth Effect)
- Bystander Effect
- Conversion of Logistic Regression Coefficient and Odds Ratio
- Determining the Factor for a Logistic Regression Model If the Probability and Coefficients Are Known
- Selling Price
- Goals of the AJCC for a Cancer Staging System
- Spin of Study Findings
- Standardized Increment of Two Treatment Groups (Effect Size, Standardized Mean Difference)
- Overestimation Error (Overdiagnosis)
- Omitted Variable Bias
- Exposure Misclassification Bias
- Criteria of Bradford Hill for Defining Causation of Disease By an Environmental Exposure
- Reasons for Mixed or Contradictory Messages
- Difficulties That an Older Adult May Have with an Alarm or Warning
- Shill
- Ghostwriting and Ghost Authorship
- Occam’s Razor (Principle of Parsimony, Principle of Frugality, KISS)
- Creating an Asset Bubble
- Mental Fatigue
- Optimism Bias and Pessimism Bias
- Distorted Thinking Associated with Depression
- Goals of Cappellini et al for a Disease Severity Scoring System (DSSS)
- Return on Investment (ROI)
- Altruism
- Referral Bias (Verification Bias)
- Non-Response Bias in a Survey
- Attractiveness and Unattractiveness Bias
- Creating an Additive Score from Odds or Hazard Ratios
- Classification of Ferner and Aronson for Human Error
- Troubleshooting a Failure of a Clinical Algorithm to Transport to a New Location
- Levels of Justice et al for Validation of a Predictive System